Naming conventions of module functions¶
Every module function has its own namespace according to the peripheral name. For example, Power Manager has module namespace of pm_, Serial Peripheral Interface falls under the spi_ namespace and so on. To use the module just include its header file. So, for example, to include and use functions that operate with the Power Manager include <aery32/pm.h>.
A common calling order for module functions is following: 1) initialize, 2) do some extra setuping and after then 3) enable the module. In pseudo code these three steps would looks like this
module_init(); module_setup_something(); module_enable();
The init function may also look like module_init_something(), for example, the SPI can be initialized as a master or slave, so the naming convention declares two init functions for SPI module: spi_init_master() and spi_init_slave().
If the module has been disabled, by using module_disable() function, it can be re-enabled without calling the init or setup functions. Most of the modules can also be reinitialized without disabling it before. For example, general clock frequencies can be changed by just calling the init function again – this is also the quickest way to change the frequency
pm_init_gclk(GCLK0, GCLK_SOURCE_PLL1, 1); pm_enable_gclk(GCLK0); /* Change the frequency divider */ pm_init_gclk(GCLK0, GCLK_SOURCE_PLL1, 6);
If you have read through the MCU datasheet, you may wonder why you cannot set all the possible settings with the initialization and setup functions. This is because these functions set sane default values for those properties. These default values should work for 80-90% of use cases. However, sometimes you may have to fine tune these properties to match your needs. This can be done by bitbanging the module registers after you have called the init or setup function. For example, the SPI chip select baudrate is hard coded to MCK/255 within the spi_setup_npcs() function. To make SPI bus faster you can bitbang the SCRB bit within CSRn register, where n is the NPCS number.
spi_setup_npcs(spi0, 0, SPI_MODE1, 16); spi0->CSR0.scbr = 32; /* SPI baudrate for the CS0 is now MCK/32 */
Modules never take care of pin initialization, except GPIO module that’s for this specific purpose. So, for example, when initializing SPI you have to take care of pin configuration!
#define SPI0_GPIO_MASK ((1 << 10) | (1 << 11) | (1 << 12) | (1 << 13)) gpio_init_pins(porta, SPI0_GPIO_MASK, GPIO_FUNCTION_A);
Every module declares global shortcut variables to the main registers of the module. For example, the GPIO module declares porta, b and c global pointers to the MCU ports by default. Otherwise, you should have been more verbose and use &AVR32_GPIO.port, &AVR32_GPIO.port and &AVR32_GPIO.port, respectively. Similarly, pll0 and pll1 declared in PM module provide quick access to MCU PLL registers etc.
As porta, b and c are pointers to the GPIO port, you can access its registers with arrow operator, for example, instead of using function gpio_toggle_pin(AVR32_PIN_PC04) you could have written portc->ovrt = (1 << 4); This is also way how you can set/unset/read/toggle multiple pins at once. Refer to the UC3A0/1 datasheet pages 175–177 for GPIO Register Map.
All module functions will return -1 on general error. This will happen most probably because of invalid parameter values. Greater nagative return values have a specific meaning and a macro definition in the module’s header file. For example, flashc_save_page() of Flash Controller may return -2 and -3, which have been defined with E prefixed names EFLASH_PAGE_LOCKED and EFLASH_PROG_ERR, respectively.